Purdue Online Writing Lab: MLA Style Guide
Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) provides writing resources and instructional materials for writing projects. The MLA Style Guide includes an introduction to the style, citation formatting for various sources, formatting for in-text citations and reference lists, and more.
MLA Style Center Homepage
Learn the MLA citation style directly from the creators. The MLA Style Center provides guidance, formatting, and examples of how to cite within the MLA style.
Citation Machine: MLA Style
Citation Machine is a free, online citation creator. Easily cite websites, books, articles, videos, and more. Just fill in the information, and remember to double check the accuracy of the citation before placing it in your reference list.
MLA is one of the most commonly used citation styles. This style is used within the language arts, cultural studies, and other humanities disciplines. Majors that use MLA citation style include Communication, Digital Media, English, Music, Religion & Philosophy, and Theatre.
Always check with your professor to determine which citation style you should use before beginning your paper or project.
Before you start creating your citations, you will need to identify:
Elements of your citation should be listed in the following order:
Rules for the Reference Page
MLA format follows the author-page method for in-text citations. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, for example, (Junes 238). A complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.
|A Work by One Author||(Wordsworth 263)||Wordsworth stated that... (263).|
|A Work by Two Authors||(Best and Marcus 9)||Best and Marcus argue... (9).|
|A Work by Three or More Authors||(Franck et al. 327)||According to Franck et al., "..." (327).|
Shorten the title of the work
("Impact of Global Warming" 22)
|The article "Impact of Global Warming" discusses... (22).|
|Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses||
Separate the citations by a semi-colon
(Burke 3; Dewey 21)
|Citing Indirect Sources||
Use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted
(qtd. in Weisman 259)
|Ravitch argues in Weisman's article... (Weisman 259)|
Source: "MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics" from Purdue OWL
Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.
Book with One Author
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987.
Book with Two Authors
Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
Book with Three or More Authors
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah
State UP, 2004.
Book by a Corporate Author or Organization
American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.
Book with No Author
Encyclopedia of Indiana. Somerset, 1993.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince, translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018.
Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard,
Vintage-Random House, 1988.
Book Prepared by an Editor
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre, edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.
Book Published before 1900
Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.
The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.
The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Susan Jones, Doubleday, 1985.
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Scholarly Journal, vol. #, no. #, Year, pp. ##.
Journal Article Accessed in Print
Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies
in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.
Journal Article Accessed Online
Wheelis, Mark. “Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons
Convention.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600,
wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.
Article in an Online-Only Scholarly Journal
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society:
The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20
Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.
Article in a Magazine
Poniewozik, James. "TV Makes a Too-Close Call." Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.
Article in a Newspaper
Krugman, Andrew. "Fear of Eating." New York Times, late ed., 21 May 2007, p. A1.
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed
10 May 2006.
“Athlete's Foot - Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014,
Article in a Web Magazine
Bernstein, Mark. “10 Tips on Writing the Living Web.” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002,
alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.
McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,
“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016,
@tombrokaw. “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign.” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m.,
National Geographic. Photo of Bering Sea. Instagram, photographed by Corey Arnold, 2 Apr. 2017,
“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,
Song on Spotify
Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/0OPES3Tw5r86O6fudK8gxi.
Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.
Netflix, Hulu, Prime Video
“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031.
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